Prevention and treatment of Osteoporosis, An application of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) continuum of care model
Keywords:Osteoporosis, prevention, fragility fractures, risk factors
Osteoporosis results from disordered bone remodeling characterized by an imbalance between bone formation and bone resorption carried out by Osteoclasts leading to an increased occurrence of osteoporotic fracture. The absolute and relative rises in the elderly population and increasing unhealthy habits of children and adolescents are causing increases in the incidence of osteoporosis and fragility fractures. The objective of this review is to assess the risk factors and prevention of osteoporosis on all prevention levels; primary, secondary, and tertiary.
The main non-modifiable risk factors are gender and genetic factors while the modifiable risk factors include physical activity, calcium intake, vitamin D, and dietary intake. Primary prevention of osteoporosis can be started from an early age by optimizing factors that improve bone mass and quality leading to a better BMD. Secondary prevention can be applied through a screening program for early detection which could be implemented generally or only for high-risk patients, while tertiary prevention is aimed at treatment and rehabilitation. The outcome of a successful prevention program is based on improving the bone mineral density of the population and detecting osteoporosis early and treating it medically to prevent fragility fracture.
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